Category Archives: Tutorials

This tutorial gives brief introduction on Components, Resonant Circuits, Filter Design, Impedance Matching, Transistors at Radio Frequencies – RF, Small Signal RF Amplifier Design, RF Power Amplifiers

How does a Diode work ?

A diode is a device which only allows unidirectional flow of current if operated within a rated specified voltage level. A diode only blocks current in the reverse direction while the reverse voltage is within a limited range otherwise reverse barrier breaks and the voltage at which this breakdown occurs is called reverse breakdown voltage.…

Portable Fuel Cell Charger

Providing off-grid power solutions is becoming increasingly important in many applications such as in military, disaster relief, and to our own recreational activities like hiking and backpacking. In this project, the team aims to supply and offer portable scalable energy access through an electromechanical fuel cell. In order to overcome the cost, transportability and safety…

Electronics and Physics Symbols and Abbreviations

µA Microampere (average) µa Microampere (peak) A Ampere (AC rms or DC) a Ampere (peak) A (amp) Ampere A/D Analog to digital AC Alternating current AC/DC Alternating current or direct current ADC Analog-to-digital converter AF Audio frequency AFC Automatic frequency control AFC Automatic flow controller, used in controlling the flow of gasses under pressure into…

Bipolar Switch Hall-Effect ICs

There are four general categories of Hall-effect IC devices that provide a digital output: unipolar switches, bipolar switches, omnipolar switches, and latches. Bipolar switches are described in this application note. Similar application notes on unipolar switches, omnipolar switches, and latches are provided on the Allegro™ website. Bipolar sensor ICs are designed to be sensitive switches. (Note…

Unipolar Hall-Effect Sensor IC Basics

There are four general categories of Hall-effect IC devices that provide a digital output: unipolar switches, bipolar switches, omnipolar switches, and latches. Unipolar switches are described in this application note. Similar application notes on bipolar switches, omnipolar switches, and latches are provided on the Allegro™ website. Unipolar Hall-effect sensor ICs, often referred to as "unipolar switches,"…

Learning to Simplify: Thevenin and Norton Equivalent Circuits

Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits are fundamental approaches to analyzing both AC and DC circuits. It is important to understand the steps involved in converting a circuit to its Thevenin or Norton equivalent, but more important still is understanding how these techniques can help you to analyze and design actual electronic devices. The Basics Thevenin’s…

Thevenin’s Theorem

Thevenin’s Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit with just a single voltage source and series resistance connected to a load. The qualification of “linear” is identical to that found in the Superposition Theorem, where all the underlying equations must be linear (no…

Mesh Analysis and Dependent Sources

This article describes the technical aspects of Performing Mesh analysis with Dependent Sources. Mesh analysis is a very handy tool to compute current within electronic circuits. From knowing the current within each mesh (section), we can solve for voltage and power (watts) at each component. Engineers and designers use this information to select correct parts…